New ways in sea buckthorn breeding
Fefelov V.A., Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Russia
There is a project begun in 1980 aimed at creation of high yielding cultivars with possibility of mechanical cultivation and with good ecological adaptation. The main method of breeding was the method of distant interpopulation crossings: Baltic ´ Katun (Western Siberia), Baltic ´ Sayan (East Siberia), Baltic ´ Karatal (South Kazakhstan), Karatal ´ Sayan. As a result new cultivars were obtained (Ryabinka, Nizhegorodsky Souvenir, Duymovochka, Dar Kazakovu, Kudrina) and a valuable initial material for further selection.
In the breeding process new germplasm of high mountainous biotypes of Karatal population (Middle Asian region) was included. Our multiyear investigation showed that biotypes of the population characterize with high winter and wilt resistance, significant and stable accumulation of oil in fruits. From combination Karatal 28 ´ Karatal 23 Nadezhda cultivar was selected.
In sea buckthorn breeding pollen of male radiomutant was for the first time applied. The pollinators were grown from seeds of Katunskaya 24 cultivar irradiated with the gamma rays (dose of 50 kR). In combinations with male radiomutants there was obtained wide range of changeability on morph-biological and biochemical features. It was observed bud mutations. The most "fruitful" combination are Botanicheskaya ´ Katun (radiomutant), Gomelskaya ´ Katun (radiomutant), T-50 ´ Katun (radiomutant). In the combinations Zarevo, Maria, Duet, Vasilisa cultivars were obtained. Two transgressive male forms were selected that possess winter resistance of bud not inferior to the best female varieties (Gerakl and Debut cultivars). In combination of Karatal 22 ´ Katun (radiomutant) there was selected big-fruited form (8/91) with dropping fruits of odd taste (sweet with piquant bitterness).
As a result of multiyear work genetically diverse initial material for further selection were created.